Association of Asthenopia, Pre-presbyopia and Refractive Errors in Workers Involved in Hand Crafting


  • Kiran Shakeel, Saba Akram, Saleem Ullah, Mahar Safdar Ali Qasim, Ayesha Arshad



Purpose: To determine the impact of hand crafting on different types of refractive errors and to check if is there any relationship of asthenopia and pre-presbyopia with this work.

Study Design: Case Series Study (stratified sampling study).

Place & Duration of Study: Kot Qaisrani ,Tehsil Taunsa District Dera Ghazi Khan and a Local Bazaar, Hussaina Gahi, in Multan from Jan 2017 to Jun 2017.

Material and Methods: 100 individuals were selected for this study having age 16-35 years. Visual acuity, Retinoscopy, Torch light examination, Ophthalmoscopy and Pencil push-up test was done of every person. A questionnaire was also filled with the information given by the person after an informed consent.

Results: Total 100 patients, 50 males and 50 females were selected in this study aging 16-35 years to check if is there any eye strain, headache, decrease in near vision before 35-40 years and if any type of refractive error is present in sample or not. There were 70% patients having near visual acuity of N6, 17% had N8 and 13% had between N10-N12. There were 74% emmetropes, 17% myopes and 9% hyperopes in this study. Out of N6 group, 40 (57.1%) had eye strain and 44 (62.8%) had headache. Out of N8 group, 15 (88.2%) had eye strain and 16 (94.1%) had headache. Out of N10-N12 group 9 (69.2%) had eye strain and 12 (92.3%) had headache.

Conclusion: There is a weak relationship of refractive errors and pre presbyopia but strong association of asthenopia in workers of hand crafting.

Key Words: Asthenopia, pre presbyopia, refractive errors.




How to Cite

Ayesha Arshad KSSASUMSAQ. Association of Asthenopia, Pre-presbyopia and Refractive Errors in Workers Involved in Hand Crafting. pak J Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2018 Jul. 1 [cited 2023 Sep. 30];34(3). Available from:



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