Frequency of ARMD in the Local Pakistani Population Presenting at a Tertiary Care Hospital


  • Hussain Ahmad Khaqan, Usman Imtiaz, Hassan Raza, Umrah Imran, Ateeq-ur-Rehman



Purpose: To evaluate the frequency of ARMD in local Pakistan population presenting at a tertiary care hospital.

Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Lahore General Hospital from 1st October 2015 to30th March 2018.

Material and Methods: A total of 1002 participants with age above 65 years were included. Participants with clear ocular media were selected randomly from outpatient department. Informed consent was taken from all participants for taking retinal images. A non-mydriatic 8 megapixel (MP) Topcon fundus camera was used to take 45 degree retinal images. Fundus fluorescein angiography was done in patients having ARMD and they were treated accordingly. A proforma was designed to collect data including age, sex, smoking, far and near vision and status of retina (ARMD present or not and its type). Blood pressure, serum cholesterol, weight, and height of persons having ARMD were recorded.

Results: A total of 1020 participants were included in study. There were 500 (49%) males and 520 (51%) females. Mean age of participants was 70.3±5 years. Frequency of ARMD was found to be 1.56% in local population. Prevalence of dry ARMD (68.75%) was greater than wet ARMD (31.25%). There was no significant gender predisposition for ARMD. Among all risk factors of ARMD smoking (41%) had strong association while hypertention (24%), diabetes (12%), hyperlipidemia (15%) and obesity (9%) had also some association with ARMD.

Conclusion: Age related macular degeneration is most frequent in smokers and they should be educated about this risk.

Keywords: Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Hypertension, Diabetes, Obesity.




How to Cite

Ateeq-ur-Rehman HAKUIHRUI. Frequency of ARMD in the Local Pakistani Population Presenting at a Tertiary Care Hospital. pak J Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2018 Jul. 1 [cited 2024 Jun. 25];34(3). Available from:



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