Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetic Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy
Objective: The aim of this study was to discover the stages of diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Study design: Descriptive cross sectional study.
Place and Duration: It was conducted in medical teaching institute Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar. Duration of study was from October 2015 to 0ctober 2016.
Material and Methods: 208 participants with type 1 and 2 diabetes having diabetic nephropathy were included in the study. Patients either requiring or not requiring hemodialysis, were also included. The data was analyzed with statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Frequency of different variables was calculated in percentage.
Results: Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) were found in 102 cases (49%) while proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was in 79 cases (38%) and normal fundi were found in 27 patients (13%). Among 69 patients who required hemodialysis, 65.2% were having PDR, 31.88% having NPDR and 2.89% normal fundi. Among 139 patients who were stable 34 had PDR (24.46%). NPDR was seen in 80 (57.55%) and normal fundi were observed in 25 (17.98%) patients. Among 184 hypertensive patients 41.84% had PDR, 54.34% had NPDR and 3.80% had normal fundi. Out of 24 normotensive patients 8.33% had PDR, 8.33% had NPDR and 83.33% had normal fundi. In 32 type 1 diabetic patients, 62.50% had PDR, 25% had NPDR and 12.5% had normal fundi. Out of 176 type 2 diabetic patients 33.52% had PDR, 53.40% NPDR and 13.06% normal fundi.
Conclusion: Most of the diabetic patients who had nephropathy had diabetic retinopathy.
Key words: Diabetic Nephropathy; Diabetic Retinopathy; Hemodialysis; Non proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy; Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.